Schlagwort-Archiv: July

Hongkong, 21 July 1893

During the night the wind had relented so that we saw the light beacon of Gap Rock at 2 o’clock in the morning without having been caught by a typhoon. In order to „Elisabeth“ arriving at the entrance to the harbor of Hongkong not before daybreak, the third boiler was taken out of operation and we thus only entered into East Lamma Channel past Green Island when it had already dawned. Still there were complications as thick fog lay over the sea and rainstorms were pouring down which obstructed the view so that we could barely see 100 m in front of us and had to drive at half speed. The mountains surrounding the harbor were not visible. Only when we could see the forest of masts of the anchoring ships and in the background the houses of the city we were no longer doubting that we had actually entered into the harbor of Hongkong.

Despite the bad weather, the harbor — the third largest in the world in terms of entering and departing number of ships as well as tonnage — offered an imposing view. We saw here vehicles from all around the world. A mighty fleet of great steam ships that handle the trafic between all the regions of the world, and here load and unload goods as well as stock coal for their onward journey. Between them all kinds of sailing ships from huge four-masted ships to tiny coastal ships. A number of warships among them multiple English ones, namely the gunboats „Daphne“ and „Plover“ as well as harbor guard ship, the hulked ship of the line „Victor Emanuel“ that once carried as an imposing battle ship the flag of Great Britain across the seas but now, unrigged and covered with a wooden roof, sees the end of its service in calm harbor duty. Also there were the Portuguese transport ship „Africa“ that is awaiting here the end of the typhoon season before starting a longer journey, some smaller Chinese gunboats and the customs ship. A similar monster like the harbor guard ship, the ship of the line „Melanie“ that was also hulked up served as a garrison hospital.

Usually the number of warships moored in Hongkong is considerably larger but due to the complications between France and Siam multiple ships had been ordered into the Gulf of Siam had steamed away a few days prior to our arrival.

An as strange as original background is presented by the many hundreds of Chinese junks that fill the harbor with their bulky ship hulls and the triangular and mostly already quite damaged and torn sails only to bunch together into a real wall of ships at the quay. Their disproportionally high fore and the decorated and also very high aft castle remind one of illustrations of ships from the time of the Great Armada. The skill with which these junks are steered and maneuvered through a labyrinth of moored ships despite their seeming sluggishness  is remarkable to a high degree. It is quite a pleasure to observe the lively activity of the junks. It looks as if one would ram one of the large steam ships or another ship in any moment, but a quick maneuver undertaken in the last moment undoes the peril and the journey continues without interference. The junks that are devoted first to the trade along the coast and for fishing still venture out wide into the open sea, even though their build will not resist heavy typhoons, so that if such a storm suddenly arises, then the junks surprised by it will usually perish.

Like mosquitoes countless small sampans and „slipper boats“ race around in the harbor, while numerous steam barges diligently handle the trade between the ships and the land. On the quay, there lay, besides a legion of junks, also moored the large wheel steamboats that transport passengers twice a day to  Canton.

Used to see the natives of the countries we visited to perform every activity with great shouting we were no less astonished about the complete quiet with which the crews of the Chinese ships performed their duties. Thanks to the pouring rain we also saw for the first time the strange rain gear of Chinese sailors which consists of a long „Waterproof“ made out of reed that reaches down to the knees and repels even the heaviest rain. A large round tubular hat about the size of a wagon wheel performs the duty of an umbrella.

The crown colony consists of the island of Hongkong itself, the small surrounding islands (Stone Cutters, Green, Applechow or Aberdeen, Middle, Round Island etc.) — ceded 1841 by China to England — and the small piece from the mainland of the Southern half of the Kowloon peninsula to the North of the island of Hongkong that had been transferred to England in 1861. This is separated from the island of Hongkong by an estuary that is about a mile wide at its Eastern end called Lyemoon Pass, but grows narrower to a width of only a quarter mile. The estuary is about six sea miles long and forms the three sea miles wide harbor of Hongkong.

The island of Hongkong is a steeply rising granite mound with narrow valleys and gorges that is deeply cut in on all sides, especially on its Southern coast where the bays cut deeply into the land. The highest elevation of the mostly bare and craggy island is found at Victoria Peak (556 m) in the West; at its foot and on the Northern end of the island lays the city of Victoria, usually called Hongkong.

The commercial, financial and political importance of Hongkong, the most Eastern possession of Great Britain in Asia, especially the role which the free harbor play not only for the Chinese but for all East Asian trade attests the long view of England in recent times for the acquisition of bases for its maritime trade. Here too, as in Gibraltar, the British have managed to secure themselves a position whose acquisition had far-ranging consequences for the development of its trading fleet.

Whether Hongkong is comparable in matters of landscape to Gibraltar or, as many want to claim, Naples, I am unable to decide as I am not familiar with either harbor. In any case, the harbor of Hongkong seemed to me one of the most beautiful that I have yet touched on my journey.

The city of Victoria rises like an amphitheater at the foot of Victoria Peak. Along the beach one first sees the about 7 km long line of imposing building on the crowded quay called Praya. Beyond it the remaining parts of the well laid out city rise in terraces on the slopes of Victoria Peak. The lower terraces are filled with large blocks of houses. Further up villas and garden mansions rise. The unfortunately frequent fog clouds the Peak which is connected with the city by a mountain railway and looks majestically down upon the green of the city of villas, the glittering white of the palace-like buildings, upon the wide quay and the life in the harbor.

In the North of the harbor, on the peninsula of Kowloon, are extended shipping facilities, docks, navy depots, shipyards, workshops, coal reserves, hawser houses and the observatory with the meteorological station which is of special importance here as it is a signal post for the very frequent typhoons in the East Asian Sea. It is connected by telegraph with the main points on the Chinese coast as well as with Manila. If a typhoon is detected, the storm signals visible from far away are raised whose form and color indicates the direction of the upcoming typhoon.  This is an extremely important navigational assistance for the departing ships. When we arrived, the signal „typhoon North-east“ had been hoisted and we thus had our assumptions during our journey to Hongkong confirmed.

Both the peninsula of Kowloon and the island of Hongkong are surrounded by steep heights with highly jagged forms. On the mainland one immediately notices the widely gleaming bare spots with red earth that are irregularly distributed on the ridges and slopes of the mountains The mountains of the island of Hongkong are naturally completely bare except for bushes and low grasses in the gorges and streams, but the English have managed to grow woods and create parks in part of their territory, namely in the villa quarter and in the „Happy Valley“ East of Victoria. This amelioration of the terrain required notable expenditures and labour but has been favored by the warmth and the humidity of the summer climate. In the winter, however, the fall in temperature had been detrimental to the effort. Here too systematic agricultural work has managed to overcome all obstacles, so that today a lovely ring of parks and gardens is ornamenting the villa quarter of Victoria. The creation of a still not very voluminous layer of vegetation has in part been undertaken to improve the sanitary situation. In fact the climate of Hongkong is rather unhealthy which results in a relatively high death rate.

Despite the elevated death rate, the number of inhabitants of the crown colony is constantly growing, accounted for by the Chinese who constitute the largest  part of the population while the others are only about 10.000 Europeans and a low number of mixed-bloods.

During our entrance into the harbor, there was an unsettling incident: we were driving quite fast between numerous junks and steamers when suddenly there was a failure in the steam steerage transmission that stopped so that the ship drifted to starboard and headed undirected towards a number of moored junks. Even though we were already dangerously close to the junks so that their crews cried for help, our crew still succeeded to prevent a severe accident by setting both machines into reverse and quickly setting an anchor at full speed. The anchor fortunately caught hold in the ground and held.

Soon after the damage to the steering mechanism had been repaired, a navy officer came on board to assign us our anchorage where „Elisabeth“ was moored at the buoy of the flagship of the English squadron.

Immediately afterwards we performed the territorial salute and after its reply, offered a salute to the English rear admiral Palliser with 13 shots.

Now happened a true assault on „Elisabeth“, as numerous Chinese businessmen and traders in their small boats closed in to the sea ladder in order to come on board as fast as possible. Each wanted to be in front of the next, to display his goods and do business. The yellow stream flowed upwards, the frowning stare and berating words of our First Lieutenant were unable to contain them. The first ones who had climbed up on deck of „Elisabeth“ were mostly older owners of laundries. Each of these had a group of six to eight young pretty assistant laundresses who were well washed and neatly dressed in black, acted quite cute and reminded me of dolls. These little ladies then developed astonishing skills in praising the services of their laundries and displayed as much energy as emancipation. They entered straight into all cabins and took the dirty linen with smiles and jokes from the occupants to bundle them and take them away in their sampans. Everywhere on board, this flock traipsed around and only after considerable time our rigorous NCOs managed to get the pretty ones to return on land.

Then it was the turn of the male gender and vendors of the most various Chinese products, tailors, shoemakers etc. swarmed over the deck. These avid pig-tailed brothers appeared equipped with a large bundle of favorable testimonials among them many from ships of our navy such as „Fasana“, „Saida“ and „Zrinyi“. All these businessmen were very impertinent which however proved entertaining as it was accompanied by an incredible gibberish of various languages. One of the merchants whose physiognomy resembled a fox and who was distinguished by his smartness was even able to speak German which he had learned by trading with German warships. A joker had named this linguistic Chinese „Bismarck“, a name he now preferred to use.

Artists too came on board — painters who performed their business in a quasi factory-style, by producing in the shortest time life-size portraits from photographs. They mostly caused general hilarity but some managed to achieve a surprising match to the original. We naturally all gave orders and some sailors followed our example so that soon many a „Carlo“ or „Beppo“ in Chinese interpretation will be the artistic ornament of Dalmatian fishermen’s huts.

The avid business that developed on board was only terminated by the sudden shock of a tropical rainstorm that poured down with in great intensity and continued during the whole day with short interruptions. The fog too had become more densely and reduced the view completely so that the stay on board was quite uncomfortable.

In this mean weather, the dignitaries came on board to pay their visits. Their uniforms and top hats had to endure much in the pouring rain. The first visitor was, as our consular agent himself was absent, the interim director of our consulate,  Mr. Ernst Goetz, then rear admiral Palliser and finally the governor Sir William Robinson who seemed to care about my health no less than his colleague in Singapore. The latter had sent a telegram to Calcutta warning about cholera in Singapore, the former had informed me via our ministry for foreign affairs in a message that a smallpox epidemic had broken out in Hongkong and advised us to cut our stay here short. I, however, was not willing to have my decisions influenced by whatever illness and even shorten our stay in Hongkong that I to the contrary decided to prolong. On the other hand and in consideration of the raging illness that one could not actually notice I declined with thanks all invitations to receptions and festivities in order to not endanger anybody or disturb the peace. I could not fully discard the impression that my presence here was somewhat uncomfortable to the governor, so that he wanted to prevent my visit by feigning concerns about smallpox.

As the visit required a return visit, I went on land despite the pouring rain to return Sir William Robinson’s visit after I had been carried around for some time in a palanquin — the coolies we used failed to understand where we wanted to go. A well-kept garden surrounds Government House which offers a splendid view of Victoria and the harbor full of ships. Tall Sikhs had taken up position at the gate of the palace. The English prefer to use Indians to perform guard and especially police duties in Hongkong. Clad in tall turbans and armed with a policeman’s baton their standing in the streets commands respect, and vividly reminded me of our friends from Jhodpur. When we told one of these policemen whose presence seemed especially remarkable that we had seen Jhodpur and met Pratap Singh and Harji Singh, his eyes lighted up with pleasure.

The police in Hongkong seems to perform its duties quite harshly as the batons of the policemen can often be seen to come into ungentle contact with the back or the shaved head of a Chinese.

One of the main duties of the police is keeping order at the Praya during the night because it happens all too frequently that Europeans who use a sampan to return on board of their ships have completely disappeared — probably murdered by Chinese rowers, robbed and then sunk to the bottom of the sea. In order to prevent the repetition of such crimes, the policemen supervise the nightly activity at the quay and note the number and the time of departure of each commissioned sampan.

The streets were filled with the local transport vehicles of which there are two, namely rickshaws we had already known in Singapore that are drawn by runners and palanquins or bamboo seats that are preferably used on steeper roads and shakily rest on the shoulders of coolies. While the runners in the rickshaws lagged behind those of their fellow runners in Singapore both in speed and endurance, the carriers of the palanquins and bamboo seats astonished us by their performance. Hour upon hour they carry , walking at a fast pace, their burden and transport it fleet-footed even to the highest points of Hongkong. It is remarkable that the carriers do not show especially strong muscles but their necks become instead extended to a comical length which is said to be related to the burden placed upon the shoulders for many hours day by day.

At each berth, the arriving people from the boats are greeted by a horde of coolies who praise their services with loud shouts. Has a choice been made, the runner or carrier departs immediately without having understood the destination of the passenger and drop off the passenger at an arbitrary place in the city. Tediously, the passenger then has to communicate with the coolie and inform the latter about his error. Finally it seemed to succeed and in a fast pace the journey continues, sometimes again in the wrong direction until the coolie finally is directed to the correct location. The dress of these runners and carriers is always the same: wide blue breeches, jackets of the same color and large hats. Wealthy people have their own runners and carriers in their personal service. These are mostly dressed in white and carry sashes in the colors of their masters.

The city of Victoria is divided into two parts. The Eastern part is European and the Western one Chinese, a division that is by the way not complete as there are houses and especially shops owned by Chinese in the European part as well as European houses and businesses in the Chinese part. A stranger first notices the wide beautiful streets that divide the city in parallel lines in the direction to the Praya and create terraces while the perpendicular streets that constitute the connections between the main streets can be at times quite steep. Surprising is the general cleanliness which shows the work of the police strongly led by the English and which is all the more necessary as cleanliness is not among the chief virtues of the Chinese.

In the European quarter the Praya developed alongside a whole row of imposing buildings that are mostly dedicated to business, thus the wholesellers‘ booths, the banks and all kinds of industrial activities and most of the consulates. Behind these buildings the wholesellers seemed to have concentrated themselves while in an interminable row of shops on both sides on Queens Road, the first parallel street to the Praya, retail trade is blooming offering luxury goods, art and industrial products. There, Europeans compete peacefully for business with the Chinese. Where Peddar Street meets Queens Road, a giant clock tower rises, a landmark of Hongkong. The number of barracks is high in whose courtyards soldiers in snow-white uniforms perform all kinds of exercises.

The Chinese quarter whose streets are sometimes so narrow that two humans can barely walk side by side is characterized by thousands of colorful company boards. These are narrow, often  3 long 4 m long boards that are painted in the most flashy colors and decorated and hung vertically and contain praise about the company in Chinese letters. Colorful family altars decorated with tinsel and artificial flowers are missing in none of the shops. Countless, big-bellied lanterns and lampions serve to cast clear light on the nightly activities in the Chinese quarter. This light is surpassed, regardless of its specific character, by the electric light which has been generally introduced in Hongkong and is severely disrupting the picturesque effect of the native illumination in the Chinese quarter. Everywhere, Chineseness is put forward and imprints itself in a unique way in public life. It is much more pronounced, vivid and plastic than for instance in Singapore, as the Chinese constitute the major part of the population even though other peoples complement the colorit of street life.

The wealthy Chinese can be recognized easily in the crowd by their white blouses with wide plaited arms as well as pants in blue colors and linen stockings and silk shoes. The poorer classes of the Chinese population content themselves with simpler clothing of mostly a dark purple perkail; many men of the lower classes leave their upper body naked and walk barefoot like the women of the poorer classes. The fan, indispensable for the Chinese, is in constant motion. Remarkable is the large number of sons of the Heavenly Kingdom who wear glasses which is explained in part, I was told, that numerous Chinese dandies use this instrument not in order to improve their sight but to look like literati and thus increase the attractiveness of their personal impression, thus out of foppishness. Such an expression of dandyism might only be possible in China.

Wealthy Chinese let their queues fall freely nearly down to the ground while the poorer ones bind it up. All, however, shave their hair up to the middle of their head. The queue forms every Chinese’s pride. Plucking in jest at what the English call „pig-tail“ would be a grave insult to the wearer. If mother nature had not favored the wearer with the necessary long hair, then artificial means assist —  tout comme chez nous— and long silk threads are woven into it. By the way each Chinese carries a thread in his pigtail, usually of black color and in the case of grief, white. Children use red that promises good fortune.

Chinese women whose daily activities preferably take place within the the walls of their homes can be seen only in relatively limited numbers in the streets. On members of the upper classes one can observe the strangely crippled feet that cause a nasty duck-like gait.

Everybody in Hongkong devotes himself to business. All the world rushes through the streets to do business, namely in the Chinese quarter. There is a never-ending rush here and there by the pushy crowd that is sometimes interrupted by festive processions, marriage and funeral corteges whose approach is from afar announced by shattering noises of the inevitable gongs.

In the smaller alleys crossing the parallel main streets the shops are as if stuck together and in the middle of these traffic veins mobile cookshops have established themselves that offer fruits and all kinds of undefinable dishes for a pittance.  The Chinese tend to eat everything and one could write a book about the diversity of Chinese ingredients and dishes as well as the respectful stomach of the pig-tailed brothers that tolerates things that are in a state very close to putrescence. The cost of life is extremely cheap in consideration of this frugality in terms of the quality of food which is beneficial to the numerous population. For about ten Kreuzer of our currency an adult man is able to get completely adequate daily nurture.

The further a walker advances to the the West the more numerous become beverage stands, opium dens and gambling houses and other entertainment venues of the most dubious nature. These are the places frequented by sailors and coolies as the stomping grounds of the wildest passions where ugly scenes are happening in the evening and during the night.

After the worst heat of the day is over, at about 5 o’clock in the afternoon the throng and crush in the streets takes on a bee swarm-like character. Everybody walks, pushes, moves, rushes and runs in shambles. A pedestrian is not infrequently in danger to be pushed over  by one of the rickshaw runners while crossing the street. Even though the coolies are very skilled in turning and evading, now and then a small accident happens as our as cherished as portly chief physician can attest. His rickshaw runner could not slowdown his vehicle at a very steep slope due to the not inconsiderable weight of the passenger and drove at full pace into a Chinese store where our worthy chief physician was dropped a bit unkindly amidst all the goods.

Soon here and there excited, attracted and enthralled by these strange vivid images and scenes, I finally entered many shops that offered articles of Chinese origin in order to indulge in my shopping habit. There the same play repeated itself. The haggling found no end as the sellers asked for exorbitant prices which they reduced to a third after a half hour of hard bargaining, thus completing the trade. Finally the problem about the total amount due was also solved after extended calculations with a computing machine and agreements made regarding the transport of the bought treasures to our ship. Satisfied, I could continue my journey.

Despite the rain there was an oppressive heat during the day that caused uninterrupted transpiration. The continuously high temperature that hardly relents even for a moment makes staying in these latitudes uncomfortable as even the night offers not only no relief but makes the dull heat more susceptible. The organism feels weak, without force. Even the most vivid interest for the new impressions offered weakens finally under the influence of the heat. Those who give in to the temptation of seeking relieve in drinking refreshing beverages will suffer all the more by a higher susceptibility to the high temperature.

The hot days which we also enjoy at home as „canicular days“  can not in the slightest be compared in their de-energizing effect to the glowing and very humid atmosphere of the tropical regions during the rainy season, so that it seems to be hard work for children of the temperate zone to live permanently in a tropical region. Our constitution, our being is not suitable for a tropical climate. Body and soul lose their vigor that is required to stay in good health and perform at the highest level. I at least would in time become very melancholic in these oppressive temperature of these latitudes. Everything on this earth can be borne but not a number of — hot days.

The evening I spent on board, unfortunately clouded by a major disappointment. We had been very confident that finally in Hongkong the much expected mail would be received as we had been nearly four months without news from home and had put all our hopes on this harbor, but we were informed that Coudenhove had taken along the voluminous mail that had already arrived on his journey to Bangkok where we had been expecting to meet him in the commendable intention for us to get the mail at the earliest moment.

Now we had to be patient again until the arrival of Coudenhove, which was easier said than done as the displeasure about our postal misfortune that was dogging us chronically had crushed the best resolutions and caused loud maledictions to be uttered. Namely one of the gentlemen from the staff, an exemplary tender husband who was writing a letter each day to his young wife, was very unhappy. We consoled him approving and admiring his endurance by making audacious assurances that the mail would certainly include a legion of new letters.


  • Location: Hongkong
  • ANNO – on 21.07.1893 in Austria’s newspapers.
  • The k.u.k. Hof-Burgtheater is closed for summer until 15 September. The k.u.k. Hof-Operntheater is performing Viennese waltzes and a ballet „Sonne und Erde“.

At Sea to Hongkong, 19 and 20 July 1893

When we entered the region of the Gulf of Tonkin the wind grew notably stronger and caused much heavy pitching. The weather was very inconstant and the rainstorms looked very menacing from time to time.

Many signs indicated that a typhoon was approaching as the sky was filled with broken up clouds that are characteristic for the approach of such a storm. At sunset, the horizon was colored in an abnormal livid yellow and the rough sea flung „Elisabeth“ violently to and fro. Only the barometer was not announcing the scourge of these seas as despite a quick decrease in barometric pressure it did not show the important oscillations that are usual precursors of these feared storms. Various weather observations had to made and all kinds of contradicting guesses were uttered. Timorous souls predicted one of the heaviest typhoons while staid meteorologists at first were of the opinion that the storm was behind us or would move parallel to our direction but at some distance to it. When the wind continued to grow stronger, the waves became rougher and rougher and finally there was a heavy rainstorm, everybody was nearly convinced that we would not reach Hongkong without having to pass through a cyclone.

A rare spectacle was presented by the numerous flashes in the night which crossed horizontally and illuminated the perturbed sea clear as daylight but ghostlike.


  • Location: In the South China Sea
  • ANNO – on 18.07.1893 in Austria’s newspapers.
  • The k.u.k. Hof-Burgtheater is closed for summer until 15 September. The k.u.k. Hof-Operntheater is closed from 1 June to 19 July.

At Sea to Hongkong, 17 and 18 July 1893

The South-eastern wind was replaced by a strong South-west monsoon in fairly calm sea at the beginning but the weather grew worse and all too often heavy continuous rainstorms were pouring down which made staying on deck very unattractive. The constant humidity turns clothes and shoes in the cabins into a sad state of affairs.


  • Location: In the South China Sea
  • ANNO – on 17.07.1893 in Austria’s newspapers.
  • The k.u.k. Hof-Burgtheater is closed for summer until 15 September. The k.u.k. Hof-Operntheater is closed from 1 June to 19 July.

At Sea to Hongkong, 16 July 1893

In the bad mood caused by the forced cancellation of the visit of Siam, we left Singapore in the morning. Gorgeous palms on its coast waved us good-bye. Passing the South-eastern tip of the Malacca peninsula and the light beacon of Horsburgh, we drove through the Strait of Singapore into the open sea steering towards Hongkong.

During the departure and in the Strait of Singapore there was rainy weather but the sky cleared up in the afternoon. The changes between sunshine and rain created impressive color effects and reflections on the horizon.

At the onset of darkness we sighted Aur Island and soon afterwards individual islands of the Anambas group.

During the night, the wind turned to South-east but remained light. The sea was calm.


  • Location: At Sea near the Anambas group
  • ANNO – on 16.07.1893 in Austria’s newspapers.
  • The k.u.k. Hof-Burgtheater is closed for summer until 15 September. The k.u.k. Hof-Operntheater is closed from 1 June to 19 July.

Singapore, 15 July 1893

According to a telegram received today from Coudenhove the Siamese minister for foreign affairs had declared that all measures had been taken to receive me in the best manner possible but at the moment there existed no certainty in Siam about the further development of the current complications. Therefore I decided with a heavy heart to take the higher diplomatic considerations into account and forgo the chance to gain in a stay, even if only a brief one, some insight about the state of the kingdom of Siam — a state it would have been of the highest interest to learn more about even if only furtively.

The homeland of a thousand year old civilization combining autochthonous elements with Indian and Chinese forms, Siam is the sole still independent kingdom of the South East Asian peninsula that has managed to preserve the character of oriental autocracy in pure form. The territory of the „lord of the white elephants“ had managed to stay out of the spheres of influence of the European states up to now and be open to European influence only as far as that was achievable without harming the national peculiarities.

The visit to the royal court of Siam, seeing the strange luxurious architecture that Bangkok offers in its temples and palace rooms as „Asia’s Venice“, observing Siamese culture, art and customs as well as hunting in the hilly woods and swamps of the country that will certainly be rewarding for my eagerly growing collections — all this and a number of beautiful, educational and hunting days became the victim of international entanglements.

My tropical fever hindered me also today to go on land. While at the beginning I was forced to stay in bed which was extremely uncomfortable due to the terrible heat in the cabins, I managed now to rest on a chaise longue on the afterdeck castle or on the iron deck and thus enjoy the refreshing air cool the high temperature.

The recovery from tropical fever and the abatement of the weakness connected to it is retarded by two factors as long as the ill person is on board of a ship: The first factor is the suffering caused by the heat for which there are fewer countermeasures available on board than on land. Secondly, it is difficult to prepare the necessary invigorating food on board. The tropical fever leads to a complete bodily weakness, despite the best care and food, so that the level of activity of an ill person is similar to that of a housefly in autumn. While the physical condition of an ill person amounts to a total weakness of all the body’s forces, the psychic condition is such that there are frequent changes from total passivity to keyed up nervousness. The resulting depressive spirit will cause, after intervals of absolute passivity, a mood in the ill person that makes interacting with him nothing less than interesting for persons in proximity.

My gentlemen had done some shopping for me in the city and among else restocked the menagerie as death had recently produced quite a few important empty spots. A part of our animals also was set to be sent home on board of the just departing (Austrian) Lloyd’s steamboat „Vindobona“. As a replacement I had bought 14 monkeys which climbed up the yards and shrouds or outboards into the battery. Two of these four limbed animals just used the first moment of their golden liberty to enter the cabins of the first lieutenant and the chief engineer and produce such a chaos there that it looked in there like the aftermath of a heavy storm. One of the wrongdoers was caught when it, having completed the work of destruction, admired itself self-satisfied in the mirror after using plenty of the toiletteries laying around.

When the sun set, I had already lost the last hope to visit Bangkok and buried it in the endless sea.


  • Location: Singapore
  • ANNO – on 15.07.1893 in Austria’s newspapers.
  • The k.u.k. Hof-Burgtheater is playing „Hamlet“. The k.u.k. Hof-Operntheater is closed from 1 June to 19 July.
Not content with misinforming its readers about FF's stay in Siam, the Salonblatt adds an imaginative but wrong impression of the meeting.

Not content with misinforming its readers about FF’s stay in Siam, the Salonblatt adds an imaginative but wrong impression of the meeting.

Singapore, 14 July 1893

Unfortunately, Job’s news arrived in form of a telegram out of Bangkok announcing that the arrival of two French cruisers at the estuary had caused great commotion and there was now uncertainty what could happen as a consequence of the French action. I immediately had sent another telegram to Coudenhove in order to obtain the utmost achievable clarity about the possibility of our visit in Bangkok.

In the afternoon the commander informed us about a note from the British gunboat HMS „Pigmy“ which stated that two French ships had forced their way into Menam and an engagement happened at Paknam.

We stayed again in the roads, this time to load provisions and to await news from Siam as we still had hope that events would take a different turn at the last moment and yet permit a visit of Bangkok.

Some newspaper from Austria and the German Empire that we had managed to procure from a club in Singapore were eagerly devoured.


  • Location: Singapore
  • ANNO – on 14.07.1893 in Austria’s newspapers.
  • The k.u.k. Hof-Burgtheater is playing „Die Journalisten“. The k.u.k. Hof-Operntheater is closed from 1 June to 19 July.
The Wiener Salonblatt No, 29 tells it readers that FF has arrived in Singapore but does not mention his illness. It, however, knows that FF will spend the next two weeks in Siam.

The Wiener Salonblatt No, 29 tells it readers that FF has arrived in Singapore but does not mention his illness. It, however, knows that FF will spend the next two weeks in Siam.

Singapore, 13 July 1893

Today a steamer in the new harbor made room for us and so we could start loading coal. This happened very quickly, thanks to the assistance of Chinese coolies, so that, in a single day, we had loaded the required reserve on board.


  • Location: Singapore
  • ANNO – on 13.07.1893 in Austria’s newspapers.
  • The k.u.k. Hof-Burgtheater is playing „Vater und Sohn“. The k.u.k. Hof-Operntheater is closed from 1 June to 19 July.

Singapore, 12 July 1893

At 4 o’clock the light beacon of Horsburgh became visible and at a quarter before 9 o’clock the anchors were dropped in the roads of Singapore.

The Belgian consul general M. J. de Bernard de Fauconval, still representing our consular affairs here, representatives from the English government and suppliers soon brought messages from Europe on board that were immediately reported to me in my sick bed.

The last messages we received from home, namely in Sydney, dated from the start of the month of April and the most recent Viennese newspapers carried the date of 6 April. Since then, we had been left without news, apparently due to misdirection of the mail. During our long journey through the Melanesian islands to Singapore, we had constantly guessed when and where we would encounter our mail. Before each call at a harbor in which the mail might have been waiting for us, our expectations about this served as a general topic of conversation and the commissary officer was overwhelmed with questions about the higher or lower probability of satisfying our hopes and was blamed, in advance, for any disappointments. Unfortunately, the latter did occur!

We had heavily counted upon to find a mail package already in Thursday Island or, for instance, in Amboina — but each time in vain! How bitter it is to travel for four and a half months without receiving even the tiniest news from home can only be appreciated by those who can feel the joy in the hearts of those, thousands of miles away from home, who receive a new voluminous mail package on board — a mail package that contains letters and with them the assurance that many a dear being at home has not forgotten the distant traveller.

Some of the messages brought on board by the consul general were in way positive. Apart from the rumor that a revolution had occurred in Paris and the information that the English admiral’s ship „Victoria“ did sink with a loss of life in the waves of over 400 brave sailors, we were informed that the political situation in Siam was now in a state that it was questionable whether it was a sound idea for us to pay a visit to Bangkok. It was said that the French government talked about setting up a blockade and that the Siamese thought about resisting energetically and had already blocked the river Menam with ships sunk for that purpose. Multiple French troop transport ships and gun boats had been rushed there. Given the tense situation, a declaration of war could happen at any moment.

I immediately telegraphed Coudenhove, legation secretary of our embassy in Tokyo staying in Bangkok, to send authentic information about the recent entanglements. He answered however that the King of Siam was definitely expecting my visit. During the day, a Siamese officer named Luang Visadh Parihar came on board on behalf of his government to seek information about my intentions, and this messenger was announced our probable arrival in Bangkok.

During the day we had to remain in the roads as the New Harbor where coal is usually loaded was so overcrowded with ships that we could not enter.


  • Location: Singapore
  • ANNO – on 12.07.1893 in Austria’s newspapers.
  • The k.u.k. Hof-Burgtheater is playing „Die guten Freunde“. The k.u.k. Hof-Operntheater is closed from 1 June to 19 July.

At Sea to Singapore, 11 July 1893

The inescapable fate that had struck nearly everybody on board selected me as one of its last victims. In the afternoon, I lay with fever in my cabin.

I had probably attracted the evil passenger on the Aru islands whose swamps deep below sea level befoul the air with miasmas. There a part of our crew became ill. While the fever showed itself immediately in case of a sailor, I had carried the lingering illness within me. Fortunately my illness was only of a lesser degree, but I was not spared the disagreeable side effects of tropical fever, especially the great weakness.


  • Location: at Sea to Singapore
  • ANNO – on 11.07.1893 in Austria’s newspapers.
  • The k.u.k. Hof-Burgtheater is playing „Die kluge Käthe“. The k.u.k. Hof-Operntheater is closed from 1 June to 19 July.

Cape Po to Kuching, 10 July 1893

As soon as the not really friendly morning had arrived, the barge with the gala boat in tow was ready, so that we set out up the Sarawak at the earliest moment possible in the company of the commander whom I had invited to come along.

The bay South of Po Point proved to be very shallow which forced us to make quite a detour before we reached the mouth of the Sarawak river between Muwarataha and Brook’s Point. The bay was full of fishing equipment which we recognized from Amboina: labyrinths made out of cane or bamboo with supervising seats for the fishermen.

The drive itself was not very interesting. The river is meandering in strong curves across a flat monotonous land between green walls of trees which contain neither beautiful palm trees nor other tall trunks. The only diversion offered to the keen eye were some small native villages whose huts had been erected on poles close to the shore. In front of them numerous children were mingling and playing in the mud or sand and looked curiously at the passing barge.

We met a considerable number of praus which were all awaiting the rush of the tide to continue their journey to Kuching. The difference between high and low tide and the upstream and downstream current caused by this are incredibly strong here and ease shipping considerably so that the onset of the tides sees whole flotillas of praus sail in close proximity. If these boats do not manage to complete the journey from the mouth to the city in one day, the anchor and await the next tide.

The closer we came to Kuching the narrower the meandering river became and more and more boats passed us by with oars or sail. Some of these were tightly packed with Chinese. As soon as we had passed the final turn of the river at Tanah Putik, Kuching presented itself to us as a long row of brick ovens, saw mills, huts and houses, all dominated by a glittering white fort with a signal tower on a small hill. Continuing further upstream one reaches the city, a strange mix of European and native buildings. The contrast between the modern and the Malayan architecture did not abruptly clash here but seemed from afar to combine into one picture that was quite pretty. Here another fort or better fortified barracks became visible whose lime-washed white walls were glittering while the glacis and the outer works were surrounded by park-like groups of trees and luxuriously growing green lawns.

On the left bank the residence of the sultan is towering, a building in villa style. On the right bank rise the public buildings, the court with the post office, the market hall, small barracks, the prison. The bank itself, however, is covered with Chinese houses and native huts. The dirt around these buildings, the numerous fishes laid out to dry and rot in the sun, as well as numerous disgusting garbage and supplies produced a penetrating quite malodorous smell. Numerous vehicles almost all with the flag of Sarawak were moored at the shore, among them a quite nice steam yacht belonging to the raja.

The first question we posed in English to the curious crowd after our landing was where the club house was which „Saida“ had found and praised during its visit of Kuching.  Our questions were quite insistent as we wanted to eat something first of all and refresh ourselves a bit before we turned to the other points of the day’s program. Unfortunately I received to my great consternation the answer that the club house had been recently sold and demolished but not yet replaced by a new structure. So we were left to walk across the fish market to the city to seek information there. Fortunately we soon met a blond son of Albion who was immediately willing to help us in finding orientation and lead us directly to a large building fronted by an open hall of pillars. In it were situated the court, the post office and other offices. In the hall stood peacefully all kinds of cannons, mostly of Chinese origin, on wooden pedestals. Here the British man presented us to the post master general of Sarawak who was wearing a tropical uniform and who, being informed about our name, rushed away to inform the raja about our arrival.

His Highness Sultan Charles Johnson Brooke was just presiding as a judge as a glance across the open hall of pillars showed. Besides the raja sat yawning judges in their upholstered leather chairs, stood claimants, defendant, witnesses, and thus we had the opportunity to watch a real session of „The Datus Court“. This supreme court of the territory in which the raja preside and only native dignitaries are able to speak and vote is the highest authority in all civil law affairs for the natives. The enquiry and decision of these matters is handled according to Sarawak’s customary laws.

The raja interrupted the court proceedings and appeared in front of me carrying a long staff as a external sign of his honor in his hand and surrounded by the dignitaries of his territory. Even though my visit to Kuching had been announced quite some time ago, my sudden unexpected arrival caused quite some astonishment. After a pause, the raja asked how he could be of service to me. His proposal to provide a life guard staffed by his people was not to my liking. My desire was simply to quench my hunger with better non-fluid food than the market of Kuching provided and then visit the city and undertake an expedition into the interior of the land the following morning in order to have a look at some real Dajaks and their villages and perhaps make the acquaintance of a still free Orang-Utan, this giant great ape.

We presented this program to the raja but its realization stood little chance. The raja agreed with pleasure to show me his residence but the expedition into the interior could not be organized as such an expedition required at least two weeks. It was unfortunately impossible for us to spend such a long time given the fixed journey and the approaching typhoon season in the Chinese sea. As far as the Dajaks were concerned I had to learn that the Dajaks in this territory had taken to the milder customs and their villages had lost much of their originality. A consequence of the approaching civilization even in the jungles of Borneo is the disappearance of the notorious pirates and head-hunters of the North-western Dajaks and their huts formerly very originally decorated with war trophies. As much as we saluted the progress of civilization, it was still disappointing for an ethnologist! Also the hunt for Orang-Utans had to be cancelled as these had seemingly been completely displaced from the surrounding areas of Kuching. ((Franz Ferdinand might have seen an Orang-Utan in the ape and monkey building („Affenhaus“) in the Schönbrunn zoo or as a special attraction in the Vienna Prater, though the Neue Freie Presse reports that the Orang-Utan of the Prater Vivarium died in June 1891.))

In view of these not very pleasing messages I decided to return on board after visiting the city and thus hasten our arrival in Bangkok.

The sultan wanted to serve personally as my guide in his capital and residential city and started showing us the sights whereas he strangely started with the prison which seemed to catch his special governmental attention. It is located within a miniature fortress and unquestionably well maintained.

A tall, very slim man, the sultan walked at a fast pace despite being more than sixty years of age and despite the great heat which cost us many drops of sweat and made the sightseeing of some of the institutions rather superficial. We thus rushed through the government building offices, the post and telegraph office, through the courthouse until finally the carriage approached which had been ordered for me  — a small gig drawn by a pony — to transport me to the newly built museum. Here too the raja wanted to complete everything at a fast pace but I found too many interesting things in this small but very rich museum not to rein in Brooke’s speed. The collection only contains natural or ethnographic objects from Borneo itself: Orang-Utans which I unfortunately was to view on Borneo only in stuffed form. The strange proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus); specimens of other on Borneo not really very numerous mammals; a rich collection of birds and butterflies of numerous gorgeous species etc.

The most important department of the museum was the ethnographic collection which contains only objects of the Dajaks. The taste and skill with which the Dajaks, a tribe that is in many aspects at a low level of development, produce and decorate weapons, jewelry and tools etc. is remarkable. As material they use human hair, teeth, bones as well as complete human skulls play an important role. From the museum terrace one has a nice view of the city, overlooking the newly built church, the palace of the bishop, the pretty country mansions of the few Europeans living in Kuching in the middle of green gardens.

During the sightseeing journey I noted the exemplary order and cleanliness of the roads. Everywhere there were signs of hard hand and a European sense of civilization that guided the sloth and indolence of the population. Without doubt, the house of Brooke had performed excellently during their short time of rule. As far as affairs were in the interior of the land and how the administration was working there I naturally could not assess.

In small barges we crossed the river to reach the raja’s residence which was built on a hill on the left bank and surrounded by a park. The exterior of the building was bare of any ornamentation. In the interior I found a number of bare, neglected rooms. The furniture and the other equipment in the reception and dining hall looked as if these two rooms with a moldy atmosphere were rarely used. It is a habit of mine to examine all the pictures in a house or palace I entered for the first time. From these I can secretly try to draw conclusions about the character and the passions of the owner. Here there were only a few pictures and only one caught my eye: a life-size portrait of James Brooke, the founder of the territory whose forceful energetic features fully matched my expectations. This agreeable impression, however, was completely destroyed by the picture of  Garibaldi that was displayed close by.

In the guest room the raja assigned to me, the moths had caused quite a bit of damage at the furniture and the bed so that only a very uncertain estimate could be made about the original splendor of the room’s equipment. But at least it was agreeable to rest there until lunchtime given the reigning heat.

The lunch could not be called princely — the court of Sarawak practised not really good English cooking which says about all there is to say about the cooking of one of the sons of Albion whose products can not be seen as culinary master works. The court wine cellar however did not seem well stocked as only I was served champaign while the other gentlemen received nothing. Besides the son of the raja, the heir apparent Charles Vyner Brooke and his educator completed our circle — Her Highness the Sultan has been for quite some time staying in England — there was a lady who had come to see the race that was soon to take place here. The lady’s contribution to the conversation was limited to the words „yes“ and „no“ now and then which she produced without any movement not even a turn of her head. As the raja was a bit hard of hearing and only English was spoken, I can hardly count the lunch in the dark dining hall among the most stimulating social experiences of my life.

Before my departure the raja had a company of his army assemble in front of the palace with a music band. The regular army consists of 300 men. I can not be denied that the soldiers who I inspected made a very good military impression. They were wearing white coats with black lacing in the Hungarian manner and pants made out of the same material as well as round black caps and were armed with Snider rifles. The men were all recruited from native Dajaks who were quite small in stature but were said to still distinguish themselves in strength, endurance and courage. The company saluted and the music band played our anthem — the virtuosi were Malays — apparently only practised at the last minute and the artists did not manage to play more than the first part while a battery nearby was firing countless shots. Then I took my heartfelt leave from the friendly raja and drove downstream with our barge which did not take long thanks to the favorable low tide so that we covered 25 sea miles in 2.5 hours.

During the last part of the journey down the valley a beautiful spectacle developed before my eyes as the sun was setting and sent its last shining rays onto the rain-filled clouds of an upcoming storm and thus produced a row of enticing beautifully colored rainbows.

On board of „Elisabeth“ it was decided to hoist anchors immediately and directly drive to Singapore and only from there steer towards Bangkok. The thought of another stay in Singapore was not very enticing to me but calling again at this harbor made sense out of a number of reasons: the coal stock had to be replenished which was not doable in Sarawak due to the loading difficulties and the inappropriate quality of the coal. Furthermore the ethnographic and other collections had grown so much that it was expedient and timely to send a part of it home to make space. The main reason for calling at Singapore was however that there had been undetermined rumours about entanglements between France and Siam. We had first to know more about this in order to eliminate the risk of travelling to Bangkok and find the mouth of the Menam blocked.

Vivarium in the Vienna Prater advertises the arrival of three new Orang-Utans in the Neue Freie Presse on 1 August 1892.

Vivarium in the Vienna Prater advertises the arrival of three new Orang-Utans in the Neue Freie Presse on 1 August 1892.


  • Location: Kuching, Sarawak, Borneo
  • ANNO – on 10.07.1893 in Austria’s newspapers.
  • The k.u.k. Hof-Burgtheater is playing „Der Veilchenfresser“. The k.u.k. Hof-Operntheater is closed from 1 June to 19 July.